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Which Countries Border Poland


Modified: January 3, 2024

by Sandye Coulson



Poland is a fascinating country located in Central Europe. It is known for its rich history, vibrant culture, and breathtaking landscapes. One interesting aspect of Poland is its geographical location, which makes it a neighbor to several countries. The country shares borders with Germany, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Ukraine, Belarus, Lithuania, and Russia (via the Kaliningrad Oblast). Poland’s strategic position has not only played a significant role in its history but also contributes to its economic development and tourism.


Being surrounded by various nations, Poland has experienced a unique blend of cultures and influences throughout the centuries. The country’s geographic location has had a profound impact on its language, cuisine, traditions, and even its architecture. Each neighboring country has left its mark on Poland, creating a diverse and fascinating cultural tapestry that delights visitors and locals alike.


In this article, we will explore in detail which countries border Poland, highlighting the characteristics of each neighboring nation and the cultural exchanges that have shaped Poland’s identity. Let’s embark on a journey to discover the countries that share their borders with this beautiful and enchanting land.


Eastern Neighbors

Poland shares its eastern border with two countries: Ukraine and Belarus. Both of these countries have unique cultural and historical ties with Poland, fostering a deep sense of connection and shared heritage.


Ukraine, located to the east of Poland, is the largest country in Europe by land area. The border between Poland and Ukraine stretches for over 535 kilometers and is characterized by picturesque landscapes and the majestic Carpathian Mountains. The history between Poland and Ukraine is intertwined, with periods of cooperation and conflict shaping their relationship. The cities along the border, such as Lviv and Przemyśl, have long been important cultural and trade hubs, showcasing the influences of both Polish and Ukrainian traditions.


Belarus, to the northeast of Poland, shares a border of around 418 kilometers. The ties between Poland and Belarus can be traced back to ancient Slavic tribes and medieval kingdoms. Over the centuries, the border regions have witnessed exchanges of traditions, languages, and cultural practices. Białowieża Forest, located partially in both countries, is a shared natural treasure, known for its pristine wilderness and the iconic European bison. The border towns of Brest and Terespol serve as entry points between Poland and Belarus, offering glimpses into the unique blend of cultures that define the region.


Exploring the eastern border of Poland unveils a tapestry of history, nature, and cultural interplay. The proximity to Ukraine and Belarus provides opportunities for cross-border exchanges, fostering a deeper understanding of the shared heritage and diverse traditions that shape this part of Europe.


Western Neighbors

Poland shares its western border with two countries: Germany and the Czech Republic. These neighboring nations have played a significant role in shaping Poland’s history, culture, and economic development.


Germany, Poland’s largest western neighbor, shares a border of approximately 467 kilometers. The relationship between Poland and Germany has evolved throughout the ages, from wars and conflicts to post-war reconciliation and cooperation. The border regions are marked by cities with rich historical and cultural heritage, such as Szczecin, Frankfurt (Oder), and Görlitz. The vibrant exchange of people, ideas, and businesses between Poland and Germany has had a profound impact on both sides, creating vibrant cross-border communities and fostering economic growth.


The Czech Republic, located southwest of Poland, shares a border stretching for around 790 kilometers. The relationship between Poland and the Czech Republic is rooted in their shared history as part of the former Austro-Hungarian Empire. The border regions, including cities like Wrocław and Cieszyn, display a fascinating blend of Polish and Czech influences. The cultural and economic ties between the two countries have strengthened over the years, with increased tourism and cross-border collaborations contributing to the development of vibrant border areas.


Exploring the western border of Poland offers a unique opportunity to experience the interplay of different cultures and historical legacies. The proximity to Germany and the Czech Republic has profoundly influenced Poland, contributing to its diverse cultural fabric and providing a gateway to further European exploration.


Northern Neighbor

Poland’s northern neighbor is the country of Lithuania. The border between Poland and Lithuania stretches for approximately 103 kilometers, forming an important connection between the two Baltic states.


Lithuania and Poland share a long and intertwined history, dating back to the medieval times when they were both part of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. The border regions, including the cities of Suwałki and Augustów, showcase the cultural and historical ties between the two countries. The influence of the Polish-Lithuanian heritage can still be seen in both countries, with shared traditions, language, and architecture.


Today, Poland and Lithuania enjoy a close relationship as members of the European Union and NATO. The proximity of the two countries facilitates cross-border cooperation in various fields, including trade, tourism, and cultural exchanges. The border region serves as a bridge between Poland and Lithuania, allowing for a seamless transition between the two nations.


Exploring the northern border of Poland provides an opportunity to discover the shared history and cultural connections between Poland and Lithuania. From medieval castles and historic towns to vibrant festivals and traditional cuisine, this region offers a glimpse into the rich heritage of both countries.


Southern Neighbor

South of Poland lies its neighboring country, Slovakia. The border between Poland and Slovakia stretches for around 539 kilometers, traversing stunning mountain ranges, charming towns, and picturesque landscapes.


The relationship between Poland and Slovakia is characterized by historical ties, cultural similarities, and shared experiences. Both countries were once part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire and later, the Eastern Bloc during the Cold War era. The border region, with towns like Zakopane and Nowy Targ on the Polish side and Poprad and Bardejov on the Slovak side, showcases the mountainous beauty and rich folklore of the region.


The Tatra Mountains, which straddle the border between Poland and Slovakia, are a shared natural treasure and a popular destination for outdoor enthusiasts and nature lovers. The border region also offers opportunities for cross-border tourism, with shared hiking trails, ski resorts, and thermal spas.


Poland and Slovakia enjoy close diplomatic and economic cooperation as both countries are members of the European Union and NATO. The border serves as a gateway for collaboration in various fields, including trade, infrastructure development, and cultural exchanges.


Exploring the southern border of Poland introduces visitors to the stunning landscapes of the Tatra Mountains and the rich cultural heritage of the region. The close proximity and shared experiences between Poland and Slovakia result in a beautiful blend of traditions and a warm welcome for visitors on either side of the border.



Poland’s geographical position in Central Europe provides it with a diverse range of neighboring countries. Each border serves as a gateway to unique cultural experiences, historical legacies, and natural wonders. From the rich history shared with Germany and the Czech Republic to the cultural exchanges with Ukraine, Belarus, Lithuania, and Slovakia, Poland’s borders are a testament to the intermingling of different cultures and traditions.


The proximity to these neighboring nations has not only influenced Poland’s history but also contributed to its economic development, tourism, and cultural vibrancy. The border regions, with their shared heritage and cross-border collaborations, showcase the interconnectedness and interdependence between Poland and its neighboring countries.


Exploring the borders of Poland reveals a tapestry of diverse landscapes, from the majestic Carpathian Mountains in the east to the picturesque Tatra Mountains in the south. It opens doors to historical cities, charming towns, and natural wonders that encapsulate the essence of Central Europe.


Whether it’s discovering the medieval castles and vibrant cities along the western border, delving into the shared history of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth in the north, experiencing the influences of neighboring cultures in the east, or immersing oneself in the stunning natural beauty of the southern border, Poland’s neighboring countries offer a wealth of opportunities for exploration, adventure, and cultural enrichment.


By understanding the countries that share its borders, visitors gain a deeper appreciation of Poland’s unique position in Europe and the cultural diversity that has shaped its identity. The borders of Poland serve as a symbol of connection, cooperation, and harmonious coexistence, showcasing the beauty and richness that can be found at the intersection of different cultures and histories.