Header Notice

Winter is here! Check out the winter wonderlands at these 5 amazing winter destinations in Montana

Morning Fuel In Mongolia


by Cele Edmondson



Welcome to the world of food travel, where exploration of culinary delights goes hand in hand with the discovery of new cultures and traditions. One of the most fascinating aspects of food travel is experiencing the local breakfast rituals and delicacies. In this article, we will take you on a journey to Mongolia, where breakfast is a hearty and essential meal that sets the tone for the day.


Mongolia is a landlocked country nestled between China and Russia, known for its nomadic traditions and vast steppes. The traditional Mongolian breakfast reflects the nomadic lifestyle and the need for nourishing, energy-packed meals to fuel the day ahead. The focus is on hearty and wholesome dishes that provide sustenance in the harsh Mongolian climate.


As we delve into the world of traditional Mongolian breakfast, we will explore the staple foods, beverages, and regional variations that make this mealtime experience truly unique. From dairy products and meat sources to fruits and vegetables, Mongolian breakfast offers an array of flavors and textures that will tantalize your taste buds.


Join us on this culinary adventure, as we uncover the diverse and delicious morning fuel of Mongolia. Get ready to indulge in an array of flavors and experience the true essence of Mongolian hospitality through their breakfast traditions.


Traditional Mongolian Breakfast

The traditional Mongolian breakfast is a hearty and nourishing meal that provides the energy needed for a day of work and exploration. It typically consists of staple foods like dairy products, meat, and grains, along with a hot beverage to kickstart the day.


One of the most iconic dishes of Mongolian breakfast is “boortsog,” which are deep-fried pastries shaped like small knots or stars. They are crispy on the outside and soft on the inside, making them the perfect accompaniment to a morning cup of tea or milk. Boortsog is often served with “aruul,” a type of dried curd made from goat or cow milk. Aruul provides a tangy and creamy flavor that balances well with the sweetness of the boortsog.


Another popular dish is “tsuivan,” a stir-fried noodle dish made with meat (usually beef or mutton) and vegetables. Tsuivan is a hearty and filling breakfast option, as it combines the energy from the noodles with the protein from the meat. The noodles are typically hand-pulled and stir-fried with vegetables like carrots, cabbage, and onions. The result is a flavorful and satisfying dish that is both comforting and nutritious.


In addition to these staple dishes, Mongolian breakfast often includes “buuz,” which are steamed dumplings filled with meat and spices. Buuz are similar to Chinese or Tibetan dumplings, but with a distinct Mongolian twist. These dumplings are usually made with lamb or beef, seasoned with onion, garlic, and various herbs, and steamed to perfection. Eating buuz with a side of spicy dipping sauce adds a delightful kick to the breakfast experience.


To wash down these hearty breakfast items, Mongolians often enjoy a cup of “suutei tsai,” which is a traditional milk tea. Suutei tsai is made by boiling water with tea leaves and adding milk and salt. It is slightly salty and has a unique flavor that complements the rich and savory breakfast dishes. The tea is served in a small bowl called a “suutei tsai zurag,” which has a handle for easy sipping.


Overall, the traditional Mongolian breakfast is a true celebration of local flavors and traditions. It offers a combination of hearty dishes, warm beverages, and unique culinary delights that provide the perfect start to a day of exploration in Mongolia’s breathtaking landscapes.


Staple Foods

Staple foods are the foundation of the traditional Mongolian breakfast, providing sustenance and energy for the day. These staple foods are rich in carbohydrates, proteins, and essential nutrients, making them ideal for the nomadic lifestyle and the demanding climate.


One of the primary staple foods in Mongolia is “tsampa,” a roasted barley flour that is mixed with water or milk to create a porridge-like consistency. Tsampa has been a part of Mongolian cuisine for centuries and is especially popular among nomadic herders. It is a simple yet nutritious dish that provides a good amount of energy and is easy to prepare in the morning. Tsampa can be flavored with butter, sugar, or even dried fruit for added taste and variety.


Grains like wheat and rice also play a significant role in Mongolian breakfast. Wheat is used to make various bread and pastry items like boortsog, which are deep-fried pastries, and buuz, which are steamed dumplings. These grain-based foods provide a satisfying and filling start to the day, ensuring that individuals have enough energy to tackle their daily activities.


Mongolians also rely on dairy products as a staple part of their breakfast. Milk and yogurt, often made from cow or goat milk, are regularly consumed, both on their own and as ingredients in other dishes. These dairy products are a rich source of calcium and protein, providing essential nutrients to support bone health and muscle growth.


In addition to grains and dairy, meat is also considered a staple food in Mongolia. Meat dishes like tsuivan (stir-fried noodles with meat and vegetables) and buuz (steamed dumplings filled with meat) are common in breakfast spreads. Mongolians traditionally favor lamb and beef due to their availability and the nomadic herding lifestyle. The meat provides a good amount of protein, which is essential for repairing tissues and promoting overall health.


Overall, the staple foods in Mongolian breakfast are a reflection of the nomadic lifestyle and the need for nutrient-dense meals to fuel the day. Carbohydrates from grains, proteins from meat and dairy products, and essential nutrients combine to create a balanced and fulfilling breakfast experience.



Beverages are an important component of the traditional Mongolian breakfast, providing hydration and complementing the flavors of the food. Mongolians have a range of beverages, both hot and cold, that help to start the day on a refreshing note.


One of the most popular hot beverages is “suutei tsai,” which is a traditional Mongolian milk tea. Suutei tsai is made by boiling water with tea leaves and adding milk and salt. It has a distinctive salty and creamy flavor that pairs well with the rich and savory breakfast dishes. Suutei tsai is often served in a small bowl called a “suutei tsai zurag,” which has a handle for easy sipping.


Another common hot beverage in Mongolia is “dalai,” which is a type of tea made from herbs, most commonly black or wildflowers. Dalai tea is known for its floral aroma and soothing properties, making it a perfect choice for a calm and relaxing start to the day. It is often served with a touch of honey, adding a hint of sweetness to the beverage.


Mongolians also enjoy a variety of cold beverages to beat the summer heat. “Airag” is a traditional Mongolian fermented drink made from mare’s milk. It has a tart and slightly fizzy taste and is known for its probiotic properties. Airag is a refreshing and energizing drink, perfect for quenching thirst and providing a cooling sensation during the hot summer months.


For those who prefer non-alcoholic cold beverages, Mongolians also enjoy “tarag,” which is a type of yogurt drink. Tarag is made by diluting yogurt with water, resulting in a creamy and tangy beverage with a refreshing taste. It is often served with a sprinkle of salt or sugar, depending on personal preference.


In addition to these traditional beverages, Mongolians also enjoy popular drinks like coffee and various fruit juices. These modern additions to the breakfast table add a touch of variety and cater to the evolving tastes and preferences of the people.


Whether it’s a steaming cup of suutei tsai, a refreshing glass of airag, or a soothing cup of dalai tea, the beverage options in the traditional Mongolian breakfast are diverse and provide the perfect accompaniment to the flavorful and robust breakfast dishes.


Dairy Products

Dairy products hold a special place in Mongolian breakfast, offering a rich source of nutrients and a unique flavor profile. Mongolia’s nomadic herding traditions have given rise to a strong dairy culture, with a variety of dairy products making their way onto the breakfast table.


Mongolians commonly consume milk and yogurt, which are often made from cow or goat milk. These dairy products are rich in calcium and protein, essential for strong bones and muscles. They are enjoyed both on their own and as ingredients in other breakfast dishes.


Mongolian yogurt, known as “tarag,” is a thick and creamy yogurt with a tangy flavor. It is often served as a refreshing beverage, diluted with water to create a yogurt drink known as “tarag airag.” Alternatively, tarag can be enjoyed on its own or used as a creamy topping for desserts and other breakfast dishes.


Another popular dairy product is “aruul,” a dried curd made from goat or cow milk. Aruul has a distinctive taste, similar to cheese, and is often enjoyed as a snack or used as an ingredient in dishes like buuz (steamed meat dumplings) or mixed with roasted barley flour to create a porridge-like consistency called “tsampa.”


One unique dairy product found in Mongolia is “byaslag,” which is a type of fermented cheese made from cow or yak milk. Byaslag has a strong and pungent flavor, similar to blue cheese, and is typically enjoyed with bread or as a condiment in traditional Mongolian dishes. Its tangy taste adds depth and complexity to the breakfast spread.


Dairy products are not only delicious but also play an important role in the Mongolian diet. They provide essential nutrients and help to keep individuals satiated and energized throughout the day. Mongolian breakfast showcases the versatility of dairy products, incorporating them in various forms to create a diverse and delightful culinary experience.


Whether it’s a bowl of creamy yogurt, a bite of tangy aruul, or a taste of pungent byaslag, dairy products are a cornerstone of the traditional Mongolian breakfast, adding a unique and flavorful element to the meal.


Meat and Protein Sources

Meat and protein sources are integral components of the traditional Mongolian breakfast, providing sustenance and flavor to start the day. Mongolians have a rich tradition of herding livestock, and meat holds a significant place in their culinary culture.


Lamb and beef are the primary meat sources in Mongolian breakfast cuisine. The nomadic lifestyle of the Mongolian people has led to a preference for these meats due to their availability and suitability for the harsh climate. These meats are typically used in dishes like tsuivan (stir-fried noodles with meat and vegetables) and buuz (steamed dumplings filled with meat).


Mutton is particularly prominent, and it is enjoyed in various forms such as roasted, grilled, or boiled. It provides a rich and savory flavor that complements the other breakfast dishes. Mongolian mutton is known for its tenderness and robust taste, making it a favorite among locals and visitors alike.


Horse meat is also consumed in Mongolia, especially in rural areas. It is used in dishes like “khorkhog,” where the meat is traditionally cooked with hot stones to create a unique and rustic flavor. While horse meat is not as commonly seen on the breakfast table, it is a significant part of Mongolian cuisine and adds diversity to their protein choices.


Aside from meat, Mongolians also enjoy other protein sources in their breakfast meals. Dairy products like milk and yogurt are rich sources of protein and provide essential nutrients to start the day. These dairy products can be enjoyed on their own or incorporated into dishes like yogurt-based soups or porridges.


Additionally, legumes like lentils and chickpeas are popular protein sources in Mongolian breakfasts. These legumes are often used in soups, stews, and curries, adding a hearty and nutritious element to the meal. By combining the protein from meat, dairy products, and legumes, Mongolians ensure a well-rounded and satisfying breakfast that fuels the body for the day ahead.


The meat and protein sources in traditional Mongolian breakfasts reflect the nomadic lifestyle and the reliance on livestock for sustenance. The variety of flavors and cooking techniques highlight the richness of Mongolia’s culinary heritage and offer a diverse range of options for breakfast enthusiasts.


Fruits and Vegetables

While meat and dairy products take center stage in the traditional Mongolian breakfast, fruits and vegetables also have their place on the breakfast table. They add color, freshness, and vital nutrients to the meal, offering a balance of flavors and textures.


In the morning, Mongolians often consume seasonal fruits as a refreshing and nutritious part of their breakfast. Apples, berries, and melons are commonly enjoyed, providing natural sweetness and a burst of vitamins. These fruits are often eaten fresh or used in dishes like fruit salads or yogurt parfaits, adding a touch of brightness to the meal.


Vegetables are also incorporated into Mongolian breakfasts, although to a lesser extent. Onions, carrots, cabbage, and potatoes are some of the frequently used vegetables. They are added to dishes like tsuivan (stir-fried noodles), providing texture and a hint of earthiness. However, vegetables are not as prevalent in breakfast as they are in other meals throughout the day.


In recent years, there has been a growing emphasis on incorporating more vegetables into the Mongolian diet, including breakfast. This change reflects a shift towards a more balanced and health-conscious approach to eating. As a result, more salads, vegetable omelettes, and vegetable-based side dishes are being introduced to the breakfast spread.


It’s important to note that Mongolia’s challenging climate and limited agricultural resources play a role in the availability of fresh produce, particularly during the colder months. However, efforts are being made to promote greenhouse farming and increase the variety of fruits and vegetables available year-round.


Overall, while fruits and vegetables may be limited in the traditional Mongolian breakfast, their presence is increasing as the country embraces a more diverse and nutritious culinary landscape. Incorporating these plant-based ingredients adds freshness and health benefits to the morning meal, offering a well-rounded breakfast experience.


Regional Variations

Mongolia is a vast country with diverse landscapes and unique cultural traditions. As a result, there are regional variations in the traditional Mongolian breakfast, influenced by local customs, ingredients, and culinary practices.


In the northern province of Khovsgol, near the border with Russia, dairy products play a prominent role in the breakfast spread. Locals have a strong preference for milk and yogurt-based dishes, such as yogurt soup with noodles or tsampa mixed with milk instead of water. The region is also known for its artisanal cheeses, which are frequently enjoyed during breakfast.


In the western regions of Mongolia, near the Altai Mountains, meat holds a dominant position in the breakfast cuisine. Dishes like “shorlog mori” (meat dumplings) and “khar shout” (pan-fried meat pies) are popular morning choices. Additionally, wild game meats, such as deer or wild boar, may find their way onto the breakfast table in these regions.


In the eastern provinces, including Khentii and Dornod, where nomadic traditions are strong, traditional Mongolian staples like tsuivan (stir-fried noodles) and airag (fermented mare’s milk) are commonly enjoyed for breakfast. These regions also have a strong focus on using locally sourced ingredients, including wild herbs and mushrooms, to enhance the flavors of their breakfast dishes.


The Gobi Desert region in southern Mongolia presents its own unique breakfast variations. Due to the arid climate, fresh produce may be limited. However, dairy products, meat, and staple foods like tsampa remain prevalent, ensuring a filling and nutritious start to the day.


While there are regional differences, it is important to note that the traditional Mongolian breakfast, with its emphasis on hearty and nourishing foods, remains consistent across the country. No matter where you are in Mongolia, you can expect a satisfying meal that reflects the nomadic heritage and showcases the rich flavors of the local cuisine.


These regional variations provide an opportunity for visitors to experience the diverse culinary landscape of Mongolia and appreciate the local influences that shape each region’s breakfast traditions. It’s a unique chance to delve deeper into the cultural fabric of the country and discover the flavors and rituals that make each region distinct.



Embarking on a food travel adventure through Mongolia’s breakfast traditions is an eye-opening experience that reveals the rich flavors and cultural heritage of this fascinating country. From the hearty and nourishing dishes to the unique beverages, Mongolia’s breakfast cuisine offers a glimpse into the daily lives of its nomadic people.


The traditional Mongolian breakfast is a celebration of staple foods, dairy products, meat, and protein sources that provide the necessary fuel for a day of work and exploration. With dishes like boortsog, tsuivan, and buuz, each bite is a taste of the nomadic culture that has shaped Mongolia’s culinary identity.


The incorporation of fruits, vegetables, and an increasing focus on a balanced diet showcases the evolving nature of Mongolian breakfasts. As Mongolia embraces modern influences and sustainable farming practices, the breakfast spread expands to include a wider variety of flavors and nutritional options.


Regional variations across Mongolia add a sense of diversity and local flair to breakfast traditions. From the dairy-centric dishes in Khovsgol to the meat-focused breakfasts in the Altai Mountains, each region offers its own unique take on the morning meal.


A journey into the world of Mongolian breakfast not only tantalizes the taste buds but also fosters a deeper understanding of the country’s history, culture, and nomadic lifestyle. It is a window into the resilience and resourcefulness of the Mongolian people in adapting to the challenges of their environment.


So, whether you find yourself savoring the flavors of boortsog and suutei tsai in the capital city or exploring the regional specialties in the vast Mongolian steppes, be prepared for an adventurous and memorable food travel experience. Indulge in the traditional Mongolian breakfast, immerse yourself in the unique flavors, and embrace the warm hospitality that accompanies each bite.


Mongolia’s breakfast traditions offer more than just a meal – they offer a glimpse into a way of life, a connection to the land, and an appreciation for the importance of nourishment. Start your day in Mongolia with a hearty breakfast, and you’ll be ready to embark on unforgettable adventures as you explore the wonders of this beautiful country.