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The History Of Charleston, Explained In 11 Dishes


by Dorree Archambault



Welcome to Charleston, the charming southern city that is not only steeped in history but also boasts a rich and diverse culinary scene. Known for its hospitality and vibrant food culture, Charleston is a food lover’s paradise. From classic Lowcountry dishes to innovative farm-to-table creations, the city offers a tantalizing array of flavors and experiences.


As you explore the streets of Charleston, you’ll discover that the city’s history and food are deeply intertwined. Each dish carries a story, reflecting the influence of various cultures that have shaped the region over centuries. In this article, we will take you on a journey through Charleston’s fascinating history, explained through 11 iconic dishes.


From the shores of the Atlantic Ocean to the fields of the surrounding countryside, Charleston’s cuisine is a reflection of the bountiful resources found in the area. Seafood plays a prominent role, with fresh catch like shrimp, crab, and fish taking center stage in many traditional dishes. The fertile soil of the Lowcountry produces an abundance of vegetables, rice, and other grains, allowing for hearty and flavorful meals.


Join us as we delve into the culinary heritage of Charleston, exploring the tastes and tales behind each dish. From soul-warming soups to beloved classics, you’ll discover that there’s much more to Charleston’s food scene than meets the eye. So get ready to tantalize your taste buds and embark on a gastronomic adventure through the history of Charleston, one dish at a time.


She-crab Soup

One taste of she-crab soup and you’ll understand why it is considered a culinary icon in Charleston. This rich and creamy soup is a testament to the city’s love for seafood and its dedication to preserving culinary traditions.


The story of she-crab soup dates back to the early 20th century when Mayor Robert Goodwyn Rhett introduced it at the annual Carolina Ball. Combining the succulent meat of female blue crabs with a velvety base made from cream, crab roe, sherry, and a touch of spice, she-crab soup quickly became a sensation among locals and visitors alike.


Legend has it that the soup got its name from the addition of crab roe, which gives it a distinctive orange color. The roe is typically removed from the male crabs, leaving only the females to contribute their eggs to the soup. This delicate balance of flavors creates a unique and unforgettable dining experience.


Part of the charm of she-crab soup lies in the rituals and traditions associated with its preparation. It is often served with a sprinkle of nutmeg on top and accompanied by small cubes of crumbled fried bacon, known as “devil’s eggs.” The result is a harmonious blend of flavors, with the sweetness of the crab meat complemented by the creamy base and the smoky notes of the bacon.


Today, she-crab soup can be found in many of Charleston’s finest restaurants, and it is a must-try for any visitor looking to sample the city’s culinary delights. It embodies the essence of Charleston’s culinary heritage, showcasing the region’s abundant seafood and the skillful artistry of its chefs.


Whether enjoyed as a comforting bowl on a chilly evening or as an elegant appetizer at a special occasion, she-crab soup perfectly encapsulates the flavors and traditions that make Charleston’s cuisine so exceptional. So, don’t pass up the opportunity to savor this beloved dish when you visit Charleston.


Shrimp and Grits

When it comes to quintessential Lowcountry cuisine, Shrimp and Grits takes center stage. This beloved dish showcases the humble yet flavorful ingredients that have become synonymous with Charleston’s food culture.


Shrimp and Grits can trace its origins back to the Gullah-Geechee culture, the African American descendants of enslaved people who settled in the coastal regions of South Carolina and Georgia. These communities relied heavily on the abundant seafood and locally grown crops, which laid the foundation for this iconic dish.


Traditionally, the dish consists of plump, fresh shrimp sautéed in a flavorful mixture of bacon, onions, bell peppers, and spices, served over a bed of creamy stone-ground grits. The grits are made from coarsely ground white cornmeal, slow-cooked to perfection with a combination of water, milk, and butter, resulting in a smooth, velvety texture.


What sets Charleston’s Shrimp and Grits apart is the emphasis on using local, seasonal ingredients. Chefs in the city take great pride in sourcing shrimp from the nearby coast, ensuring that each bite is bursting with the flavors of the sea. The grits are often sourced from local mills, adding an extra touch of authenticity to the dish.


While the basic components of Shrimp and Grits remain consistent, creative variations have emerged over the years. Some chefs add ingredients like mushrooms, tomatoes, or country ham to enhance the dish’s complexity and depth of flavor. Others experiment with different spices or sauces, giving it their unique twist.


Shrimp and Grits has become a staple in many Charleston restaurants, from casual eateries to upscale dining establishments. Whether you enjoy it as a comforting brunch option or as an elegant dinner entrée, this dish truly captures the essence of Charleston’s culinary heritage.


So, if you find yourself in Charleston, make it a point to indulge in a plate of Shrimp and Grits. Allow yourself to savor the delightful combination of tender shrimp, creamy grits, and the soulful flavors that reflect the city’s vibrant food culture.


Hoppin’ John

Hoppin’ John is a classic Southern dish that has deep roots in Charleston’s culinary history. This flavorful combination of peas, rice, and smoked pork is a symbol of prosperity and good luck, often enjoyed on New Year’s Day and throughout the year as a hearty and comforting meal.


The origins of Hoppin’ John can be traced back to West African and Caribbean influences, brought to the United States through the transatlantic slave trade. The dish traditionally consists of black-eyed peas, rice, and bacon or ham hocks cooked together, resulting in a savory and satisfying combination of flavors.


The name Hoppin’ John is believed to have originated from the action of “hopping” or “jumping” the peas and rice together in the pot while cooking. This technique helps to infuse the flavors and create a cohesive dish. The black-eyed peas, symbolic of coins, represent good luck, while the rice signifies abundance.


In Charleston, Hoppin’ John is often served alongside collard greens, representing wealth, and cornbread, adding a touch of sweetness to balance the savory flavors. This combination is known as “The Holy Trinity” and is believed to bring good fortune and prosperity for the coming year.


While traditionally enjoyed on New Year’s Day, Hoppin’ John has become a staple in Charleston’s culinary scene year-round. Many restaurants offer their unique take on the dish, incorporating local ingredients and adding their own creative twists. Some variations include the addition of spices, onions, peppers, or even seafood, giving the dish a distinct Charleston flare.


Whether you’re seeking a taste of tradition or a contemporary spin on a classic, a plate of Hoppin’ John is a must-try when visiting Charleston. It’s a comforting and flavorful dish that not only showcases the depth of Charleston’s food heritage but also serves as a reminder of the city’s vibrant cultural mix.


So, embrace the flavors of Charleston and savor the simplicity and richness of Hoppin’ John, a dish that brings together history, tradition, and a sense of good fortune.


Frogmore Stew

When it comes to quintessential dishes that embody the flavors of the Lowcountry, Frogmore Stew is at the top of the list. This one-pot wonder is a culinary delight that showcases the region’s abundance of seafood, fresh produce, and vibrant flavors.


Contrary to its name, Frogmore Stew doesn’t actually contain any amphibians. It is believed to have originated in the town of Frogmore, located near Beaufort, South Carolina. The stew is also known as Lowcountry Boil or Beaufort Boil, reflecting its popularity across the coastal areas of the Carolinas and Georgia.


This communal dish brings together a variety of ingredients, typically including shrimp, sweet corn, red potatoes, sausage, and spices. The ingredients are boiled together in a large pot, creating a hearty and flavorful medley. Old Bay seasoning, a staple in Lowcountry cuisine, adds a distinctive tang and spice profile to the stew.


Frogmore Stew is steeped in traditions of outdoor gatherings and seafood boils. It is often enjoyed at backyard barbecues, family reunions, and special occasions, where large groups of people can gather and enjoy the communal experience of cracking open steaming pots of deliciousness.


Charleston’s proximity to the Atlantic Ocean means that fresh seafood, including shrimp and crab, is readily available. This makes Frogmore Stew a popular menu item in many local restaurants, allowing visitors to savor the flavors of the coast in a unique and satisfying way.


Whether enjoyed with friends and family or savored at a local eatery, Frogmore Stew embodies the spirit of Charleston’s food culture. It celebrates the abundance of the sea and the joy of sharing a delicious meal with loved ones.


When visiting Charleston, be sure to indulge in a bowl of Frogmore Stew. It’s a delightful and flavorful experience that captures the essence of the Lowcountry, leaving you craving more of the region’s delectable seafood creations.


Benne Wafers

When it comes to unique and delicious treats with a historical significance, Benne Wafers stand out in Charleston’s culinary landscape. These crispy, thin, and slightly sweet sesame seed cookies have a legacy that dates back to the city’s early days.


The word “benne” is derived from the West African term for sesame seeds, highlighting the African origins of this beloved Charleston delicacy. During the years of slavery, African slaves brought their culinary traditions with them, including the use of sesame seeds in their cooking.


Benne Wafers have since become a treasured part of Charleston’s food culture, representing the blending of African, European, and American influences. They were traditionally made for special occasions and celebrations, such as weddings and holidays, and were considered a symbol of good luck and prosperity.


The cookies are made from a simple but delightful combination of ingredients: butter, sugar, flour, eggs, and, of course, sesame seeds. The sesame seeds are often toasted before being added to the dough, giving the wafers a rich and nutty flavor. The result is a light and delicate cookie with a slightly crunchy texture


Today, Benne Wafers can be found in many bakeries and specialty food stores throughout Charleston. They have become a beloved souvenir for visitors to take home, as well as a favorite treat for locals to enjoy. They are often served alongside a cup of tea or as a sweet ending to a meal.


As you savor the crispiness and nutty flavor of a Benne Wafer, you can’t help but appreciate the historical significance and cultural heritage behind this classic Charleston treat. It’s a reminder of the city’s connections to its African roots and the enduring influence they have had on Charleston’s culinary traditions.


So, make sure to try a batch of Benne Wafers during your visit to Charleston. These delicious cookies encapsulate the spirit of the city and its rich cultural tapestry, leaving you with a sweet and lasting memory of your culinary journey.


She-crab Soup

One of the most iconic dishes in Charleston’s culinary repertoire is She-crab Soup. This creamy and indulgent soup is a beloved symbol of the city’s rich seafood heritage and epitomizes the marriage of flavors that make the Lowcountry cuisine so enticing.


She-crab Soup is said to have originated in the late 19th century, and its creation is attributed to William Deas, the butler of a Charlestonian mayor. The soup gained popularity at social gatherings and became a staple in Charleston’s local cuisine.


The key ingredient that sets this soup apart is the delicate roe from female blue crabs. The roe is finely grated and added to a velvety base made from milk or cream, crab meat, butter, and a touch of sherry. The result is a luscious, rich, and slightly sweet soup that is often seasoned with a hint of nutmeg or Old Bay seasoning.


She-crab Soup is typically garnished with a sprinkle of crab meat and a drizzle of sherry, adding an extra layer of flavor and elegance. The combination of the creamy base, the sweetness of the crab meat, and the complexity of the sherry creates a truly decadent and unforgettable culinary experience.


Today, visitors to Charleston can delight in She-crab Soup at many acclaimed restaurants throughout the city. Chefs strive to put their own unique spin on the dish, adding their personal flair while staying true to the classic recipe.


When visiting Charleston, be sure to indulge in a bowl of this beloved soup. Whether it’s a chilly winter evening or a sunny summer day, She-crab Soup is an iconic dish that will transport you to the heart of the Lowcountry and leave you craving for more.


Charleston Red Rice

Charleston Red Rice is a beloved dish that showcases the vibrant flavors and cultural influences of the Lowcountry. This hearty and colorful staple has been a part of Charleston’s culinary heritage for centuries, reflecting the rich tapestry of the city’s history.


The origins of Charleston Red Rice can be traced back to West African and Gullah-Geechee culinary traditions. Enslaved Africans brought their rice cultivation techniques and combined them with local ingredients to create a distinctive rice dish.


The dish is prepared using a combination of long-grain rice, tomatoes, onions, bell peppers, smoked sausage, and spices. As the rice cooks, the natural pigments from the tomatoes give the dish its vibrant red color, hence the name “Red Rice.”


Charleston Red Rice is known for its robust and complex flavors. The combination of savory sausage, aromatic vegetables, and spices create a harmonious blend that infuses the rice with a deliciously rich taste.


While the base ingredients remain consistent, variations of Charleston Red Rice can be found throughout the city. Some versions include the addition of shrimp, chicken, or other meat, adding layers of depth and flavor.


This versatile dish is often served as a side dish or main course, accompanying a variety of meats, seafood, or vegetables. Whether enjoyed at a family gathering, a backyard barbecue, or a restaurant, Charleston Red Rice is a hearty and satisfying dish that embodies the spirit of the Lowcountry.


As you savor the flavorful bite of Charleston Red Rice, take a moment to appreciate the cultural heritage and history that shaped this iconic dish. It reflects the resilience, creativity, and resourcefulness of the people who contributed to Charleston’s unique culinary tapestry.


So, when you visit Charleston, be sure to indulge in a plate of Charleston Red Rice. It’s a delicious celebration of the city’s diverse influences and a true taste of the Lowcountry’s rich culinary traditions.


Pimento Cheese

No exploration of Charleston’s food scene would be complete without mentioning Pimento Cheese. This iconic spread is a beloved staple in the South, and its tangy, creamy goodness has captured the hearts and taste buds of locals and visitors alike.


Pimento Cheese is a simple yet flavorful combination of grated or shredded cheddar cheese, diced pimentos, mayonnaise, and a touch of seasonings, such as garlic powder, onion powder, or hot sauce. The result is a smooth and creamy spread with a slight tang and a hint of sweetness.


Charlestonians have enjoyed Pimento Cheese for over a century, with its popularity spreading throughout the South. It was originally served as a sandwich filling or a spread for crackers, but it has evolved and now finds its way into various culinary creations.


The versatility of Pimento Cheese makes it a welcome addition to many dishes. From topping burgers and hot dogs to filling omelets or stuffing inside deviled eggs, its creamy, cheesy goodness elevates any meal.


Pimento Cheese has become a beloved comfort food and a culinary tradition that has been passed down through generations. It is a staple at picnics, potlucks, and family gatherings, providing a taste of nostalgia and a sense of tradition.


Today, you can find Pimento Cheese in local markets, delis, and restaurants throughout Charleston. Many chefs have put their unique twist on the classic recipe, incorporating additional ingredients like bacon, jalapenos, or fresh herbs, to create tantalizing variations.


When visiting Charleston, be sure to sample some Pimento Cheese. Whether it’s served as a dip, a spread, or a topping, the creamy, tangy flavors of this Southern delicacy will leave you wanting more.


So indulge in the taste of Charleston’s Pimento Cheese and experience the charm and comfort of this beloved Southern classic.


Lowcountry Boil

When it comes to communal feasting and savoring the flavors of the coast, Lowcountry Boil is an iconic dish that perfectly captures the spirit of Charleston’s culinary heritage. This delicious one-pot wonder has its roots in the bountiful seafood and farm-fresh ingredients that define the Lowcountry.


Also known as a “Frogmore Stew” or a “Beaufort Boil,” Lowcountry Boil is a hearty and satisfying combination of shrimp, corn on the cob, sausage, potatoes, and sometimes crab or other seafood. These ingredients are boiled together in a large pot, creating a mouth-watering medley of flavors that will leave you craving for more.


The dish gets its name from the Frogmore area near Beaufort, South Carolina, where it was popularized. However, it has become a staple throughout the Lowcountry, including Charleston. Lowcountry Boil is often associated with outdoor gatherings, casual seafood boils, and family reunions where everyone can come together and enjoy the feast.


Embracing the spirit of the Lowcountry, Lowcountry Boil showcases the region’s abundance of seafood and the simplicity of its flavors. Local shrimp and crab, caught fresh from the nearby coast, lend a delightful briny taste. The combination of savory sausage, sweet corn, and tender potatoes creates a satisfying and well-rounded meal.


Lowcountry Boil is not just a dish; it’s an experience. Gathering around a table piled high with steaming shrimp, corn, and potatoes, you can’t help but feel a sense of community and tradition. It’s a dish that encourages conversation and connection, as everyone digs in and enjoys the communal feast.


When you visit Charleston, be sure to partake in the tradition of a Lowcountry Boil. Whether you partake in a beachfront seafood boil, join a local gathering, or indulge at a restaurant specializing in this beloved dish, you’ll be immersing yourself in the rich culinary heritage and warmth of Charleston’s food scene.


So, roll up your sleeves, gather your loved ones, and enjoy the deliciousness of a Lowcountry Boil. It’s a taste of Charleston that will leave a lasting impression and create memories to cherish.


Biscuits and Gravy

When it comes to classic Southern comfort food, biscuits and gravy top the list. This hearty and indulgent dish is a breakfast staple in Charleston and throughout the South, offering a perfect combination of flaky biscuits and rich, savory gravy.


Charleston’s version of this beloved dish is a testament to the city’s culinary heritage and the influence of Southern cuisine. It typically consists of fluffy, buttery biscuits that are split open and smothered with a creamy, sausage-based gravy.


The biscuits in Charleston’s biscuits and gravy are a labor of love, made from scratch with a combination of flour, butter, buttermilk, and a touch of baking powder. The result is a golden brown biscuit with a tender crumb that serves as the perfect vehicle for the velvety gravy.


The savory gravy is made by cooking crumbled breakfast sausage until it’s browned and flavorful. A bit of flour is then added to create a roux, and milk or cream is gradually incorporated to thicken the mixture into a luscious and creamy gravy. The final touch is a sprinkle of black pepper and sometimes a dash of hot sauce for added kick.


Biscuits and gravy are a beloved morning tradition in Charleston, enjoyed at breakfast spots, neighborhood diners, and even brunch hotspots. It’s a comfort food that warms the soul and satisfies the appetite, making it a perfect start to the day.


Charleston’s biscuits and gravy are not only delicious but also a reflection of the city’s dedication to preserving traditional Southern flavors. The dish represents the warmth of Southern hospitality and the joy of sharing a satisfying meal with loved ones.


When visiting Charleston, be sure to sample this classic comfort food. Whether you enjoy it at a local diner, a cozy café, or a renowned brunch spot, biscuits and gravy will transport you to the heart of the South and leave you craving for more.


So, don’t miss out on the opportunity to experience the irresistible combination of tender biscuits and savory gravy that has made biscuits and gravy a beloved dish among Charlestonians and Southern food enthusiasts alike.


Gullah-Geechee Cuisine

One of the most unique and culturally significant culinary traditions in Charleston is Gullah-Geechee cuisine. The Gullah-Geechee people are descendants of West African slaves who settled in the coastal regions of South Carolina and Georgia, preserving their rich cultural heritage, including their distinct cuisine.


Gullah-Geechee cuisine showcases the blending of West African, European, and Native American influences, resulting in a vibrant and flavorful culinary tradition. The dishes are deeply rooted in the region’s natural resources, with an emphasis on seafood, rice, and an array of vegetables.


Seafood, particularly shrimp, crab, and fish, features prominently in Gullah-Geechee cuisine. These ingredients are often prepared with a mix of spices and seasonings to create soulful and fragrant dishes that reflect the coastal way of life.


Rice plays a central role in Gullah-Geechee cooking, which can be traced back to West African rice-growing traditions. Rice dishes like red rice and pilau showcase the versatility and importance of this staple ingredient in Gullah-Geechee cuisine.


Vegetables also play a significant role, with collard greens, okra, sweet potatoes, and field peas taking center stage. These vegetables are often prepared with smoked meat or bacon for added depth of flavor.


Other Gullah-Geechee specialties include dishes like crab rice, gumbo, and Hoppin’ John, which were born out of the African traditions and the influence of local ingredients.


While Gullah-Geechee cuisine has its roots in humble ingredients and traditional cooking methods, it has gained recognition and admiration for its rich flavors and cultural significance. In recent years, Gullah-Geechee dishes have been highlighted in renowned Charleston restaurants, elevating their status and allowing visitors to experience the unique flavors and history of this culinary tradition.


Exploring Gullah-Geechee cuisine is not just a culinary experience, but also an opportunity to connect with the rich cultural heritage of the Gullah-Geechee people. Whether through traditional meals, storytelling, or cultural events, you can gain a deeper understanding of Charleston’s diverse history and the contributions of the Gullah-Geechee community.


When visiting Charleston, seek out the opportunity to savor the flavors of Gullah-Geechee cuisine. It’s a chance to pay homage to the rich traditions that have shaped the city’s cultural fabric and indulge in a truly unique and unforgettable culinary experience.



Charleston’s food scene is a vibrant tapestry of history, culture, and flavors that delights locals and visitors alike. Each dish tells a story, reflecting the city’s rich culinary heritage and its deep connection to the land and sea. From she-crab soup to Gullah-Geechee cuisine, the flavors of Charleston invite you on a journey through the diverse influences that have shaped the city’s culinary identity.


As you explore Charleston’s food culture, you’ll discover the significance of each dish and its place in the city’s history. She-crab soup exemplifies the city’s love for seafood, while shrimp and grits showcase the marriage of flavors that defines Lowcountry cuisine. Hoppin’ John pays homage to African culinary traditions, and Frogmore Stew brings people together in the spirit of communal feasting.


Alongside these classics, you’ll find unique delicacies like benne wafers, pimento cheese, and Charleston red rice, each representing a different facet of Charleston’s food scene. And then there’s the colorful and soulful Gullah-Geechee cuisine, which offers a taste of the deep-rooted African influences on the region’s culinary traditions.


Charleston’s food culture is a reflection of the city’s hospitality, creativity, and reverence for its history. It invites you to savor the flavors, textures, and aromas that tell the story of Charleston’s past and present. Whether you indulge in casual street food or dine at award-winning restaurants, each bite unveils a nuance of the city’s culinary landscape.


So, when you visit Charleston, be prepared to embark on a gastronomic adventure. Explore the city’s markets, sample the local delicacies, and immerse yourself in the warmth of Southern hospitality. From elegant restaurants to hidden gems, Charleston offers an array of dining experiences that cater to every taste and preference.


As you savor the diverse and exciting flavors of Charleston, you’ll not only nourish your body but also cultivate a deeper understanding of the city’s history and cultural heritage. So, come with an empty stomach and an open mind, and let Charleston’s food scene captivate your senses and leave you with unforgettable memories.