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Your Colombia Cheat Sheet


Modified: December 27, 2023

by Clementina Mcshane



Welcome to Colombia, a vibrant and diverse country located in the heart of South America. From stunning landscapes to rich cultural heritage, Colombia offers an irresistible blend of natural beauty, captivating history, and warm hospitality. Whether you’re an adventure seeker, a history buff, a nature lover, or simply looking to experience a new and vibrant culture, Colombia has something for everyone.


Colombia is known for its breathtaking natural landscapes, including the Amazon rainforest, snow-capped Andes mountains, pristine beaches along the Caribbean and Pacific coasts, and stunning coffee plantations that produce some of the world’s finest coffee. But Colombia is much more than just its natural beauty.


This country is home to a melting pot of vibrant and diverse cultures influenced by its indigenous roots, Spanish colonization, and African heritage. The result is a unique fusion of traditions, music, dance, and cuisine that can be experienced in every corner of the country.


The Colombian people are known for their warmth and friendliness, always welcoming visitors with open arms and a smile. They are proud of their country’s progress in recent years and are eager to share the beauty and richness of their culture with the world.


Colombia has made remarkable strides in terms of safety and security, shedding its turbulent past to become one of the safest destinations in the region. The government has implemented various measures to ensure the well-being of locals and visitors alike, making it an ideal place to explore and discover.


Getting around Colombia is relatively easy, with a well-developed transportation system that includes domestic flights, buses, and taxis. The country also offers a range of accommodation options to suit every budget, from luxury hotels to cozy guesthouses and eco-lodges.


Food lovers will delight in Colombia’s culinary scene, which is as diverse as its landscapes. From traditional dishes like arepas and bandeja paisa to fusion cuisine influenced by international flavors, Colombian food is a true gastronomic adventure.


Colombia is also home to a wide range of festivals and cultural events throughout the year, where locals and visitors come together to celebrate music, dance, art, and traditions. From the vibrant Carnaval de Barranquilla to the mesmerizing Feria de Las Flores in Medellin, there is always a festival to join in on the fun.


As you explore this captivating country, don’t forget to indulge in some retail therapy. Colombia boasts bustling markets, artisan shops, and modern shopping malls, offering a wide variety of unique souvenirs, handicrafts, clothing, and more.


In this article, we will provide you with a comprehensive cheat sheet for navigating Colombia. From must-visit destinations and outdoor activities to historical sites, etiquette tips, and helpful phrases, this guide will ensure that you make the most of your trip to this extraordinary country.


Geography and Climate

Colombia is located in the northwest corner of South America and is bordered by Panama, Venezuela, Brazil, Peru, and Ecuador. The country is known for its diverse geography, encompassing the Andes Mountains, the Amazon rainforest, and the Caribbean and Pacific coasts.


The Andes Mountains, which run through the western part of Colombia, offer breathtaking landscapes and are home to many indigenous communities. The highest peak in Colombia, Pico Cristóbal Colón, reaches an impressive height of 5,775 meters (18,947 feet). The fertile valleys and plateaus of the Andes are ideal for agriculture, and Colombia is renowned for its coffee plantations, producing some of the best coffee in the world.


The Amazon rainforest covers a significant portion of southeastern Colombia, providing a haven for an incredible array of flora and fauna. Exploring the Amazon is a unique experience, allowing visitors to immerse themselves in the rich biodiversity and learn about indigenous cultures that call this region home.


Colombia’s coastline stretches along both the Caribbean Sea and the Pacific Ocean, offering stunning beaches and diverse marine life. The Caribbean coast is known for its white sandy beaches, crystal-clear waters, and vibrant coral reefs. The coastal city of Cartagena, with its well-preserved colonial architecture, is a UNESCO World Heritage site and a popular tourist destination.


The climate in Colombia varies greatly depending on the region. The coastal areas, including Cartagena and Santa Marta, have a tropical climate with high temperatures and humidity throughout the year. The Amazon region experiences a hot and humid climate, while the Andes Mountains have a more temperate climate with cooler temperatures due to the higher altitude.


It is important to note that Colombia experiences rainy and dry seasons. The rainy season, known as “winter,” typically occurs from April to November. During this time, heavy rains can cause landslides and road closures, so it is essential to check the weather conditions and plan accordingly. The dry season, or “summer,” runs from December to March, offering a more favorable time to visit if you prefer dryer weather.


Understanding the geography and climate of Colombia will help you plan your itinerary and pack accordingly. Make sure to pack sunscreen, insect repellent, comfortable walking shoes, and appropriate clothing for both warm and cooler temperatures if you plan to explore different regions of the country.


Culture and People

Colombia is a country brimming with cultural diversity and a rich heritage that is influenced by its indigenous roots, Spanish colonization, and African heritage. The Colombian people are known for their warmth, hospitality, and love for celebrations.


The multiculturalism of Colombia is evident in its music, dance, art, and cuisine. Traditional Colombian music includes genres such as cumbia, vallenato, salsa, and champeta, each reflecting different regions and cultural influences. These rhythmic beats are often accompanied by lively dance performances that showcase the energy and passion of the Colombian people.


Art is deeply rooted in Colombian culture, with renowned painters and sculptors contributing to the country’s vibrant art scene. Visitors can explore numerous museums and galleries that showcase both traditional and contemporary Colombian art, allowing them to immerse themselves in the country’s creative expressions.


Colombian cuisine is as diverse as its landscapes, with each region having its own culinary specialties. A typical Colombian meal often includes staples such as rice, beans, meat, plantains, and arepas (cornbread). Seafood dishes are popular on the Caribbean coast, while hearty stews and soups are enjoyed in the Andean regions. Don’t forget to try the famous Colombian coffee, known for its rich flavor and quality.


The Colombian people take great pride in their heritage and enjoy sharing their culture with visitors. It is common to find colorful festivals and events taking place throughout the year, showcasing traditional music, dance, costumes, and food. The Carnaval de Barranquilla, one of the largest carnival celebrations in the world, and the Feria de Las Flores in Medellin, featuring elaborate flower displays and parades, are must-see events that provide a glimpse into the vibrant Colombian culture.


Colombians are friendly and welcoming, often greeting others with a warm smile and handshake. Familial relationships and strong community ties play an important role in Colombian society. It is common for people to live with their extended families and to gather for regular social gatherings and celebrations.


Respect for others is highly valued in Colombian culture. Politeness, courtesy, and greetings are essential when interacting with locals. It is customary to say “buenos días” (good morning), “buenas tardes” (good afternoon), or “buenas noches” (good evening) when entering a public space or starting a conversation.


The Colombian people also have a strong sense of national pride and are passionate about their country. They are eager to share the beauty and richness of Colombia with visitors, making it a memorable and enjoyable experience for all.



The official language of Colombia is Spanish, and it is spoken by the majority of the population. Spanish in Colombia has a unique flavor and is known for its clear pronunciation and melodious tone. However, it’s worth noting that there are also numerous indigenous languages spoken throughout the country, such as Wayuu, Embera, and Nasa Yuwe, among others.


If you are not fluent in Spanish, don’t worry! Many Colombians in tourist areas, hotels, and restaurants speak English to some extent. However, it is always helpful to learn a few basic phrases in Spanish to navigate your way around and better connect with the locals.


Here are a few essential phrases that will come in handy:

  • “Hola” – Hello
  • “Por favor” – Please
  • “Gracias” – Thank you
  • “¿Dónde está…?” – Where is…?
  • “¿Cuánto cuesta?” – How much does it cost?
  • “No entiendo” – I don’t understand
  • “¿Habla inglés?” – Do you speak English?
  • “Perdón” – Excuse me
  • “Adiós” – Goodbye

Learning a few basic phrases will not only help you communicate but also show your respect for the local culture. Colombians are generally appreciative of visitors who make an effort to speak their language, even if it’s just a few words.


If you want to delve deeper into the Colombian culture, consider taking a Spanish language course during your visit. Many language schools and institutes cater to international students, offering immersive language programs that allow you to learn Spanish while experiencing Colombian culture firsthand.


Embrace the opportunity to learn and practice Spanish during your time in Colombia, as it will greatly enhance your overall experience and connection with the country and its people.



The official currency of Colombia is the Colombian peso (COP). The symbol used for the peso is $. Banknotes are available in denominations of 1,000, 2,000, 5,000, 10,000, 20,000, 50,000, and 100,000 pesos. Coins come in denominations of 50, 100, 200, 500, and 1,000 pesos.


While the Colombian peso is the primary form of payment in the country, major credit cards such as Visa, Mastercard, and American Express are widely accepted in hotels, restaurants, and larger establishments in urban areas. However, it is always a good idea to carry some cash for smaller purchases, street markets, or establishments that may not accept credit cards.


ATMs are readily available in Colombian cities and towns, allowing you to withdraw cash in the local currency. It is advisable to use ATMs located in well-lit and secure areas, such as inside banks or shopping centers.


It’s important to note that in some rural or remote areas, especially in indigenous communities or during outdoor activities, cash may be the only accepted form of payment. Therefore, it’s always a good idea to have some smaller denomination bills on hand.


When exchanging money, it is recommended to do so at official exchange houses or banks to ensure you receive a fair rate. Avoid exchanging money on the street or with unauthorized individuals to prevent scams or counterfeit currency.


Before traveling to Colombia, it is a good idea to check the current exchange rate to get an idea of how far your money will go. Online currency converters are readily available and can provide an estimate of the value of your currency in Colombian pesos.


Lastly, tipping in Colombia is not mandatory but is appreciated for good service. It is customary to leave a 10% tip for waitstaff in restaurants. Some hotels and higher-end establishments may include a service charge, so it’s worth checking your bill before leaving an additional tip.


By familiarizing yourself with the currency and payment practices in Colombia, you will have a smoother and more convenient experience during your stay. So, make sure to have some Colombian pesos on hand, keep your credit cards secure, and enjoy exploring all that this incredible country has to offer.


Safety and Security

Colombia has come a long way in terms of safety and security and is now considered a much safer destination for travelers. The government has implemented various measures to improve security and reduce crime, making it a relatively safe place to visit.


Like any other destination, it’s always important to take precautions and be aware of your surroundings. Here are some tips to ensure a safe and enjoyable trip to Colombia:

  • Stay informed: Before traveling to Colombia, it’s recommended to check the travel advisories and follow the guidance of your government or embassy. Stay updated on current events and any safety alerts or warnings.
  • Choose safe accommodations: Select accommodations in reputable and secure areas, especially in larger cities. Look for hotels that have good reviews and safety measures in place, such as 24-hour security and secure access.
  • Use reliable transportation: When moving around within Colombia, opt for reputable transportation options. Consider using registered taxis, ride-sharing services, or prearranged transportation through your hotel or tour operator.
  • Keep valuables secure: Take precautions to protect your belongings. Use hotel safes to store passports, large amounts of cash, and other valuable items. Avoid displaying expensive jewelry or electronics in public.
  • Be cautious with your personal belongings: Keep an eye on your belongings at all times, especially in crowded areas, markets, and tourist sites. Use a money belt or secure bag to carry important documents and cash.
  • Respect local customs and laws: Familiarize yourself with the laws and regulations of Colombia. Respect local customs, traditions, and cultural sensitivities to avoid any unnecessary conflicts or misunderstandings.
  • Stay in well-lit and populated areas: Avoid walking alone at night in unfamiliar or poorly lit areas. Stick to busy streets and well-populated areas, especially after dark.
  • Trust your instincts: If something feels off or uncomfortable, trust your intuition. If you encounter a situation that makes you feel unsafe, remove yourself from it and seek help or assistance.

It’s important to note that while Colombia has seen significant improvements in safety, certain areas or regions, particularly in more remote or rural areas, may still be less secure. It is advisable to research and seek local advice before visiting these areas.


By following these safety tips and exercising common sense, you can have a safe and enjoyable experience exploring the beauty and wonders of Colombia.



Getting around Colombia is relatively easy, thanks to a well-developed transportation system that offers various options for travelers. Whether you’re exploring big cities or venturing off the beaten path, here are some transportation options to consider:


Domestic Flights: Colombia has a well-connected network of domestic airports, making it convenient to travel between cities and regions. Major airlines such as Avianca, LATAM, and Viva Air offer frequent flights to popular destinations. Domestic flights are a time-efficient option for longer distances, allowing you to maximize your time exploring different areas of the country.


Buses: Buses are a common and affordable mode of transportation in Colombia. There are various types of buses, ranging from large intercity buses to smaller minibusses or vans known as “colectivos.” The bus network covers most cities and towns, offering routes to both popular tourist destinations and off-the-beaten-path locations. It’s advisable to book bus tickets in advance, especially during peak travel times, to secure your seat.


Taxis: Taxis are readily available throughout Colombia, and they are a convenient option for short and medium distances within cities. It’s best to use official taxi services or request a taxi through reputable mobile apps to ensure safety and avoid potential scams. Taxis are usually metered, but it’s a good practice to confirm the fare or use a ride-sharing app that provides upfront pricing.


Car Rental: Renting a car can be a great option for exploring rural areas or taking road trips through Colombia. Most major car rental companies have offices in major cities and airports. However, it’s important to be aware of local driving laws, road conditions, and the potential for heavy traffic in urban areas. Additionally, if you plan to visit remote regions, it’s advisable to check if a 4×4 vehicle is necessary.


Metro Systems: A few cities in Colombia, such as Medellin and Cali, have efficient and modern metro systems. Metro systems offer a convenient way to navigate the city quickly and avoid traffic congestion. These systems often have connections to bus terminals, making it easier to travel within the city and beyond.


Motorcycles and Bicycles: In some cities, such as Cartagena and Santa Marta, motorcycles and bicycles are popular modes of transportation for shorter distances. Motorcycle taxis, known as “mototaxis” or “moto taxis,” are a common sight and offer a quick way to navigate through busy streets. Bicycles are also available for rent in tourist areas, allowing you to explore at a leisurely pace.


Before using any form of transportation, it’s always a good idea to research and plan your route, especially if you’re visiting rural or remote areas. Use reputable services, maintain awareness of your surroundings, and consider the advice of locals or your hotel for transportation recommendations.


By taking advantage of Colombia’s transportation options, you’ll be able to explore the country’s diverse landscapes, vibrant cities, and hidden gems with ease and convenience.



Colombia offers a wide range of accommodation options to suit every traveler’s needs and budget. Whether you’re looking for luxury hotels, budget-friendly guesthouses, or eco-lodges nestled in the heart of nature, you’ll find plenty of choices that cater to different preferences.


Hotels: Major cities in Colombia, such as Bogota, Medellin, and Cartagena, have a wide selection of hotels, ranging from luxurious five-star establishments to boutique hotels with unique charm. These hotels often offer amenities such as pools, spas, fitness centers, and on-site restaurants. It’s advisable to book your hotel in advance, especially during peak travel seasons, to secure your preferred accommodation and take advantage of competitive rates.


Eco-lodges and Haciendas: For a more immersive and eco-friendly experience, consider staying in eco-lodges or haciendas. These accommodations are often surrounded by lush natural landscapes and offer a unique opportunity to disconnect from the hustle and bustle of city life. Many eco-lodges in Colombia are committed to sustainability and provide options for activities like nature walks, bird watching, or cultural immersion.


Guesthouses and Hostels: If you’re traveling on a budget or prefer a more social atmosphere, guesthouses and hostels are a popular choice, especially in backpacker-friendly areas. These accommodations typically offer dormitory-style rooms with shared facilities, as well as private rooms for those seeking more privacy. Hostels often have communal areas where travelers can interact with fellow guests and exchange travel tips.


Apartments and Vacation Rentals: Another option for longer stays or more independent travelers is to rent an apartment or vacation rental. Platforms such as Airbnb and VRBO offer a variety of options ranging from self-contained apartments to private villas or houses. Renting an apartment allows you to have your own space, prepare meals, and experience the local neighborhood.


Ecolodges: Colombia is famous for its biodiversity, and many ecolodges provide a unique opportunity to immerse yourself in the natural beauty of the country. From the Amazon rainforest to the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, there are ecolodges available in various locations that offer sustainable tourism experiences and educational programs about the environment.


When choosing accommodation, consider factors such as location, amenities, safety, and reviews from previous guests. It’s recommended to research and read reviews to ensure the accommodation meets your expectations and suits your needs.


Regardless of the type of accommodation you choose, it’s always a good idea to book in advance, especially during peak travel seasons. Colombia’s popularity as a travel destination has increased, and securing your preferred accommodation early will save you time and ensure you have a comfortable stay during your visit.


With a plethora of accommodation options available, you can find the perfect place to rest and rejuvenate after exploring the wonders of Colombia.


Food and Drink

Colombian cuisine is a vibrant reflection of the country’s diverse cultural influences and rich agricultural resources. From hearty traditional dishes to fusion cuisine, Colombia offers a delightful culinary experience for food enthusiasts.


Arepas: Arepas are a staple of Colombian cuisine and are made from ground maize dough. These round, flat cakes can be filled with a variety of ingredients, such as cheese, meat, eggs, or vegetables. Arepas are typically eaten for breakfast or as a snack throughout the day.


Bandeja Paisa: Bandeja Paisa is a hearty dish originating from the Antioquia region. It consists of rice, beans, ground beef or pork, plantains, fried egg, avocado, arepa, and chorizo. This dish is a culinary feast that will satisfy even the heartiest of appetites.


Empanadas: Empanadas are a popular street food in Colombia. These deep-fried pockets of dough are typically filled with a savory mixture of meat, cheese, or vegetables. Empanadas can be found throughout the country and are often enjoyed as a quick and delicious snack.


Ceviche: Along the coastal regions of Colombia, ceviche is a must-try dish. Fresh seafood, such as shrimp or fish, is marinated in citrus juices, usually lime or lemon, and mixed with onions, tomatoes, cilantro, and spices. The result is a tangy and refreshing seafood delicacy.


Ajiaco: Ajiaco is a hearty soup that originated in Bogota. It is made with chicken, potatoes, corn, and various herbs and spices. Ajiaco is typically served with avocado, capers, and cream, and is a comforting dish perfect for colder days.


Tamales: Tamales are a traditional Latin American dish made with masa (corn dough) that is filled with meat, cheese, or vegetables and wrapped in banana leaves. Tamales are steamed to perfection, resulting in a delicious and flavorful treat that can be enjoyed for breakfast or as a snack.


In addition to the variety of dishes, Colombia is renowned for its coffee. Colombian coffee is known for its rich flavor and high quality. Take the opportunity to visit a coffee plantation to learn about the coffee-making process and sample freshly brewed coffee straight from the source.


When it comes to drinks, Colombia offers a range of options. The national drink of Colombia is aguardiente, an anise-flavored liquor. Other popular beverages include fresh fruit juices (jugos naturales), refreshing coconut water, and locally brewed beers. For those seeking a non-alcoholic option, try a refreshing glass of “limonada de coco,” a blend of coconut water and lime juice.


Colombian cuisine is diverse, flavorful, and influenced by a variety of cultural traditions. As you explore the country, be sure to try these traditional dishes, sample local specialties, and embrace the culinary delights that Colombia has to offer.


Popular Destinations

Colombia is a country with a wealth of incredible destinations, each offering unique experiences and attractions. From vibrant cities to stunning natural landscapes, here are some of Colombia’s popular destinations to add to your itinerary:


Bogota: As the capital and largest city of Colombia, Bogota offers a mix of culture, history, and modernity. Explore the historic district of La Candelaria, visit world-class museums like the Gold Museum and Botero Museum, and take in the panoramic views from Monserrate Hill. Don’t miss the vibrant food scene and Colombian coffee culture in this bustling metropolis.


Cartagena: This coastal city on the Caribbean Sea is a UNESCO World Heritage site renowned for its well-preserved colonial architecture. Explore the narrow streets of the walled Old Town, visit the impressive Castillo San Felipe de Barajas, and relax on the beautiful beaches of nearby Islas del Rosario. Cartagena is also known for its lively nightlife and vibrant Caribbean culture.


Medellin: Once infamous for its turbulent past, Medellin has transformed into a dynamic and thriving city. Ride the cable cars to explore the barrios on the hillsides, visit the Botero Plaza to admire the famous sculptures, and learn about the city’s history at the Museum of Antioquia. Medellin’s year-round pleasant climate and lively social scene make it an enticing destination.


Tayrona National Park: Located on the Caribbean coast, Tayrona National Park is a natural wonderland with stunning beaches, lush jungles, and ancient archaeological sites. Hike through the park’s trails to discover hidden beaches, relax in hammocks under swaying palms, and snorkel in crystal-clear turquoise waters. Tayrona offers a perfect blend of adventure and relaxation in a breathtaking setting.


Cocora Valley: This picturesque valley in the Coffee Triangle region is famous for its towering wax palm trees, the national tree of Colombia. Embark on a hike through the cloud forest to witness these majestic palms up close and immerse yourself in the stunning natural beauty of the area. Don’t forget to try the region’s world-renowned coffee while you’re there.


Cartagena: This coastal city on the Caribbean Sea is a UNESCO World Heritage site renowned for its well-preserved colonial architecture. Explore the narrow streets of the walled Old Town, visit the impressive Castillo San Felipe de Barajas, and relax on the beautiful beaches of nearby Islas del Rosario. Cartagena is also known for its lively nightlife and vibrant Caribbean culture.


San Andres and Providencia: These Caribbean islands are a paradise for beach lovers and water sports enthusiasts. With turquoise waters, white sand beaches, and vibrant coral reefs, San Andres and Providencia offer opportunities for snorkeling, diving, and relaxing on pristine beaches. Explore the islands’ rich history, enjoy local seafood dishes, and soak up the laid-back Caribbean vibes.


Salento: Nestled in the heart of the Coffee Triangle, Salento is a charming town famous for its colorful colonial architecture and coffee plantations. Enjoy scenic hikes in the nearby Cocora Valley, savor traditional Colombian food, shop for handicrafts made by local artisans, and learn about the coffee-making process on a plantation tour. Salento is the perfect destination for immersing yourself in the rich cultural and natural heritage of Colombia’s coffee-growing region.


These are just a few of the many incredible destinations that Colombia has to offer. Each region has its own unique charm and attractions, guaranteeing a memorable and diverse travel experience in this beautiful country.


Outdoor Activities

Colombia’s diverse landscapes offer endless opportunities for outdoor enthusiasts to engage in thrilling activities and immerse themselves in nature. From hiking through lush jungles to exploring stunning coastlines, here are some of the top outdoor activities to experience in Colombia:


Hiking: With its vast natural beauty, Colombia offers numerous hiking trails for all levels. Embark on a trek through the iconic Cocora Valley, home to towering wax palm trees. Explore the picturesque Tayrona National Park, venturing through dense rainforests to discover hidden beaches. For a more challenging adventure, consider hiking to the Lost City, an ancient archaeological site nestled in the Sierra Nevada mountains.


Scuba Diving and Snorkeling: Colombia’s coastlines boast vibrant marine ecosystems, making it an ideal destination for scuba diving and snorkeling. Visit the coral reefs of San Andres and Providencia, where you can swim alongside colorful tropical fish and explore breathtaking underwater landscapes. Tayrona National Park’s coastline also offers pristine snorkeling opportunities, allowing you to marvel at the vibrant marine life and coral formations.


Whale Watching: If you’re visiting Colombia between June and November, don’t miss the chance to witness majestic humpback whales. The Pacific coast near Nuqui and Bahia Solano is an excellent spot for whale watching. Take a boat excursion to see these magnificent creatures and witness their acrobatic displays and unique behaviors.


Paragliding: Feel the adrenaline rush as you soar above Colombia’s stunning landscapes. Paragliding is a thrilling activity that allows you to experience breathtaking aerial views of destinations such as Medellin, Roldanillo, and Bucaramanga. Take to the skies with experienced instructors and enjoy the thrill of flying.


Rock Climbing: Colombia is a paradise for rock climbers, offering a myriad of challenging cliffs and crags. Suesca, located near Bogota, is renowned for its limestone walls and variety of rock climbing routes. Other popular rock climbing spots include La Mojarra in Santander and the Cocuy National Park in the Andes Mountains.


White Water Rafting and Kayaking: Colombia’s rivers provide exciting opportunities for white water rafting and kayaking adventures. Navigate the thrilling rapids of the Rio Pato, Rio Suarez, or Rio Fonce in Santander. Experience an adrenaline-pumping ride as you conquer raging currents and immerse yourself in Colombia’s breathtaking natural scenery.


Birdwatching: Colombia is a bird lover’s paradise, boasting more bird species than any other country in the world. Explore the cloud forests of the Santa Marta Mountains, birdwatching hotspots like the Chicaque Natural Park near Bogota, or the Amacayacu National Park in the Amazon rainforest. Keep an eye out for colorful species such as hummingbirds, toucans, and various species of parrots.


Cycling: Cycling enthusiasts can take advantage of Colombia’s diverse terrain and stunning landscapes. The country has increasingly become a popular destination for cycling enthusiasts, with challenging mountain routes, scenic coastal roads, and winding highland paths. Cycle through the Coffee Triangle, explore the Andean highlands, or tackle the epic climbs of Alto de Letras.


These are just a few of the many outdoor activities Colombia has to offer. From adrenaline-pumping adventures to peaceful nature excursions, the country’s natural beauty provides endless opportunities for unforgettable experiences in the great outdoors.


Historical Sites

Colombia is a country steeped in rich history, with a wealth of historical sites that offer a glimpse into its fascinating past. From ancient archaeological wonders to well-preserved colonial architecture, here are some must-visit historical sites in Colombia:


Old Town of Cartagena: Cartagena’s walled Old Town is a UNESCO World Heritage site and a living testament to the colonial era. Explore the cobblestone streets lined with brightly colored buildings dating back to the 16th century. Visit the impressive Castillo San Felipe de Barajas, a fortress built by the Spanish to defend against pirate attacks, and admire the stunning colonial architecture of churches such as the Cathedral Basilica of St. Catherine of Alexandria.


Lost City (Ciudad Perdida): Located in the Colombian jungle, the Lost City is an ancient archaeological site that predates Machu Picchu by around 650 years. Trek through dense rainforests and climb stone stairs to reach this hidden gem of ancient civilization. Marvel at the terraces, stone structures, and ceremonial plazas that once formed a thriving city of the indigenous Tayrona civilization.


San Agustin Archaeological Park: Nestled in the Andes Mountains, the San Agustin Archaeological Park houses a collection of mysterious stone statues and burial mounds. Explore the park’s well-preserved sculptures, tombs, and ceremonial sites, which offer insights into the ancient culture that inhabited the region between the 1st and 8th centuries AD.


Popayan: Known as Colombia’s “White City,” Popayan is renowned for its well-preserved colonial architecture. Stroll through the historic center and appreciate the grandeur of buildings such as the Iglesia de San Francisco and the Catedral Basílica Nuestra Señora de la Asunción. The city is also famous for its Holy Week processions, which have been declared an Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity by UNESCO.


Quinta de San Pedro Alejandrino: Located near Santa Marta, Quinta de San Pedro Alejandrino is a historical site where Simón Bolívar, the liberator of several South American countries, spent his final days. Explore the beautiful gardens, visit the museum dedicated to Bolívar’s life and achievements, and learn about the history of the region and the fight for independence.


Villa de Leyva: This charming town is renowned for its well-preserved colonial architecture and beautiful cobblestone streets. Visit the Plaza Mayor, one of the largest town squares in South America, and explore attractions such as the Casa Terracota, an architectural marvel made entirely of clay. Villa de Leyva offers a glimpse into Colombia’s colonial past and is a favorite destination for history enthusiasts.


La Candelaria, Bogota: The historic district of La Candelaria is the heart of Bogota and a hub of colonial-era architecture. Wander through its narrow streets and visit iconic landmarks such as the Plaza de Bolivar, the presidential palace (Casa de Nariño), and the stunning Candelaria Church. Don’t miss the famous Gold Museum, which houses one of the world’s most extensive collections of pre-Hispanic gold artifacts.


These are just a few of the historical sites that showcase Colombia’s rich and diverse history. From ancient ruins to well-preserved colonial towns, exploring these sites allows you to delve into the fascinating cultural heritage of this captivating country.


Festivals and Events

Colombia is a country that truly knows how to celebrate, with a wide array of colorful festivals and events held throughout the year. These cultural celebrations offer a fantastic opportunity to immerse yourself in the vibrant traditions and spirit of Colombia. Here are some of the most popular festivals and events:


Carnaval de Barranquilla: Held in the coastal city of Barranquilla, the Carnaval de Barranquilla is one of the largest and most famous carnivals in the world. This four-day extravaganza showcases elaborate parades, vibrant costumes, music, dance, and folklore performances. Experience the infectious energy and joy as the streets come alive with the sounds of cumbia, vallenato, and other traditional music genres.


Feria de Las Flores: Medellin’s Feria de Las Flores, or Flower Festival, is a celebration of the region’s vibrant floral industry. This 10-day event features stunning flower displays, parades, orchestral performances, pageants, and the iconic Desfile de Silleteros, where farmers carry colorful flower arrangements on their backs. The festival is a time to honor the beauty of flowers and appreciate the cultural heritage of Medellin.


Cali Fair (Feria de Cali): Cali comes alive during the annual Feria de Cali, a week-long celebration of salsa music, dance, and culture. Enjoy lively salsa performances, vibrant parades, street parties, and exuberant concerts. Take part in dance workshops, immerse yourself in the pulsating rhythms of salsa, and witness the crowning of the “Cali Queen” in this dynamic festival.


Blacks and Whites’ Carnival (Carnaval de Negros y Blancos): Celebrated in Pasto, this carnival is a unique fusion of indigenous, Spanish, and African cultural traditions. The festival features parades, music, vibrant costumes, and the famous “pintadera” tradition, where revelers paint each other with black or white paint to symbolize the blending of cultures. This carnival is a true representation of Colombia’s diverse heritage.


Holy Week Processions: Throughout Colombia, Holy Week (Semana Santa) is observed with solemn processions that reenact the events of the Passion of Christ. The processions are held in many cities and towns, but the most renowned ones are in Popayan and Mompox. These processions are a display of religious devotion, featuring religious statues, traditional rituals, and hauntingly beautiful processional music.


Ibero-American Theater Festival: Held every two years in Bogota, the Ibero-American Theater Festival is one of the largest theater festivals in the world. The city becomes a stage for renowned national and international theater companies, showcasing a diverse range of performances, from traditional plays to experimental works. Immerse yourself in the world of performing arts during this cultural extravaganza.


International Flower Festival (Feria de las Flores): Located in Medellin’s surrounding region of Santa Elena, this festival celebrates the region’s flower production. Experience the stunning parade of flower-decorated floats, visit the flower farms, and witness the stunning flower arrangement competitions. The festival showcases the beauty and significance of flowers in Colombian culture.


These are just a few of the many vibrant festivals and events that take place throughout the year in Colombia. From music and dance to flowers and folklore, these celebrations offer a glimpse into the country’s rich cultural heritage and the joyful spirit of its people. Be sure to check the dates and plan your visit accordingly to witness the magic of these enchanting festivities.



Colombia offers a wide range of shopping opportunities, from traditional markets to modern shopping malls, where you can find unique souvenirs, handicrafts, clothing, and more. Whether you’re looking for traditional Colombian treasures or seeking the latest fashion trends, here are some shopping experiences to enjoy in Colombia:


Markets: Explore bustling markets to discover locally made products and immerse yourself in the vibrant atmosphere. In Bogota, visit the Paloquemao Market, known for its wide variety of fruits, vegetables, and flowers. The Usaquen Flea Market in Bogota and the San Alejo Market in Medellin are excellent places to find antique treasures, handicrafts, and unique souvenirs.


Emeralds and Jewelry: Colombia is famous for its emeralds, and you can find high-quality gemstones and exquisite jewelry in various cities. The Emerald District in Bogota, specifically on 7th Avenue, is renowned for its numerous emerald shops. Other cities like Cartagena, Medellin, and Santa Marta also have reputable jewelers where you can admire and purchase these beautiful Colombian gems.


Handicrafts: Take home a piece of Colombian artistry through handmade handicrafts. Explore the neighborhoods of La Candelaria in Bogota or Getsemani in Cartagena to find artisan shops selling intricate woven textiles, pottery, hammocks, leather goods, and more. One of the most famous handicrafts in Colombia is the intricately woven Wayuu bags, made by the indigenous Wayuu people in the northern region of La Guajira.


Fashion and Shopping Malls: Colombia has a vibrant fashion scene and is home to numerous top national and international brands. Explore modern shopping malls such as El Tesoro in Medellin, Andino in Bogota, and Buenavista in Barranquilla for a wide range of fashion, accessories, and electronics. You’ll find renowned Colombian designers, as well as international brands, offering the latest styles and trends.


Coffee: Don’t miss the opportunity to take home some of Colombia’s world-renowned coffee. Visit specialty coffee shops or coffee farms in the Coffee Triangle region to purchase premium coffee beans, ground coffee, and unique coffee-related souvenirs. You can also find coffee-related products such as handmade ceramic coffee mugs, coffee-scented candles, and coffee-infused chocolates.


Colombian Cigars: If you’re a cigar enthusiast, Colombia offers a selection of premium cigars. The finest Colombian cigars are made from aged tobacco leaves grown in the Santander region. Explore specialty tobacco shops in cities like Bogota and Cartagena to find a variety of locally crafted cigars, including brands like La Hoja and Caribe.


When shopping in Colombia, remember to exercise your bargaining skills at markets and smaller stores. It’s a common practice to negotiate prices, especially in markets and for certain products. However, in shopping malls or larger stores, fixed prices are the norm.


Whether you’re looking for traditional souvenirs, unique handicrafts, fashionable clothing, or a taste of the famous Colombian coffee, Colombia offers a vibrant shopping scene that caters to every taste and budget. Embrace the experience of shopping in this culturally rich country and take home some special reminders of your time in Colombia.



When visiting Colombia, effective communication is essential for navigating your way through the country and connecting with the local people. Here are some important aspects to keep in mind when it comes to communication in Colombia:


Language: The official language of Colombia is Spanish, and the majority of the population speaks it fluently. While English is spoken to some extent in tourist areas and larger cities, it is always helpful to learn a few basic phrases in Spanish. It shows respect for the local culture and can make your interactions much easier. Locals appreciate the effort, even if your Spanish skills are limited.


Greetings: Colombians are generally warm and friendly, and greetings are an important part of their culture. It is customary to greet people with a handshake, a smile, and eye contact. Colombians often address each other using formal titles, such as “señor” (Mr.) or “señora” (Mrs.), followed by one’s last name, especially when meeting someone for the first time.


Politeness and Etiquette: Politeness is highly valued in Colombian culture. Addressing people respectfully, using “por favor” (please) and “gracias” (thank you), and using basic courtesy phrases can go a long way in creating positive interactions. Remember to say “buenos días” (good morning), “buenas tardes” (good afternoon), or “buenas noches” (good evening) when entering a public space or starting a conversation.


Non-Verbal Communication: Non-verbal cues also play a role in communication in Colombia. Maintaining eye contact while speaking, using hand gestures to enhance conversation, and displaying open body language are all considered signs of engagement and respect. Colombians may stand closer during conversations compared to what you may be accustomed to, as physical proximity is expected in social settings.


Internet and Mobile Connectivity: Internet connectivity is generally reliable in most urban areas of Colombia, and many hotels, restaurants, and cafes offer free Wi-Fi for customers. If you need constant access to the internet, consider purchasing a local SIM card for your smartphone, making it easier to stay connected with your loved ones and access online resources as you explore the country.


Emergency Services: Familiarize yourself with the local emergency numbers in Colombia. The general emergency number for police, ambulance, and fire services is 123. It’s also a good idea to have the contact information of your embassy or consulate in case of any emergencies or passport-related issues.


Respect for Cultural Diversity: Colombia is a country with diverse ethnic groups, each with its own cultural traditions and customs. It’s important to be respectful and open-minded when exploring different regions and engaging with people from various backgrounds. Take the time to learn about the different cultures and traditions you encounter and approach them with curiosity and respect.


By keeping these communication tips in mind, you can enhance your interactions with locals and have a more enjoyable and meaningful experience while exploring the beauty of Colombia.


Etiquette and Customs

When visiting Colombia, understanding the etiquette and customs of the country will help you navigate social interactions and show respect for the local culture. Here are some important etiquette tips to keep in mind:


Respect for Others: Colombians value respect and politeness in their interactions. Treat others with kindness and courtesy, addressing them with formal titles like “señor” (Mr.) or “señora” (Mrs.) followed by their last name when meeting someone for the first time. Pay attention to personal space, as Colombians often stand closer during conversations than in some other cultures.


Punctuality: While punctuality is appreciated, it’s important to note that Colombians have a more relaxed approach to time. Meetings and social gatherings may start a bit later than scheduled, and flexibility is appreciated. However, it’s still advisable to be punctual for business or formal events.


Mealtime Etiquette: If you are invited to a Colombian home for a meal, it is customary to bring a small gift for the host, such as a bottle of wine or a dessert. Colombians take their time during meals, often engaging in lively conversation and enjoying the company of others. It is considered polite to wait for the host to begin eating before you start your meal.


Tipping: Tipping is customary in Colombia. In restaurants, it is common to leave a gratuity of about 10% of the total bill. Some establishments may include a service charge in the bill, so check before leaving an additional tip. It is a good practice to tip hotel staff who provide exceptional service, such as bellhops or housekeeping staff, and also to offer a small amount to taxi drivers for their service.


Gift Giving: If you are invited to someone’s home or want to show appreciation, bringing gifts is a thoughtful gesture. Flowers, chocolates, or a small token representative of your home country are appropriate gifts. When presenting gifts, it is polite to offer them with both hands as a sign of respect.


Dress Code: Colombians generally take pride in their appearance and dressing well is important in social and business settings. While casual attire is acceptable for most situations, such as exploring tourist areas or dining at casual restaurants, it is advisable to dress more formally for business meetings, upscale restaurants, or religious sites.


Respecting Cultural Diversity: Colombia is a country with a rich tapestry of cultural diversity. It’s important to respect and appreciate the different customs and traditions you encounter. Learn about the cultural background of the regions you visit and be mindful of any specific customs and sensitivities. Embrace the opportunity to learn from the diverse cultural heritage that Colombia has to offer.


By understanding and practicing these etiquette tips, you will foster positive and respectful interactions with Colombians and enhance your overall experience in the country. Embrace the warmth and hospitality of the Colombian people while immersing yourself in the diverse cultural mosaic that makes this country so unique.


Helpful Phrases

Learning a few key phrases in Spanish will greatly enhance your experience in Colombia and help you navigate through various situations. While many Colombians in tourist areas and big cities speak English to some extent, making the effort to communicate in Spanish shows respect for the local culture and can make a positive impression. Here are some helpful phrases to aid you during your time in Colombia:

  • Hola – Hello
  • Por favor – Please
  • Gracias – Thank you
  • De nada – You’re welcome
  • ¿Cómo estás? – How are you?
  • ¿Habla inglés? – Do you speak English?
  • Perdón – Excuse me
  • Lo siento – I’m sorry
  • No entiendo – I don’t understand
  • ¿Dónde está…? – Where is…?
  • ¿Cuánto cuesta? – How much does it cost?
  • ¿Puede ayudarme? – Can you help me?
  • ¿Cómo se llama esto? – What is this called?
  • Quisiera… – I would like…
  • ¡Salud! – Cheers!
  • Adiós – Goodbye

Additionally, here are a few phrases that may come in handy when seeking assistance or directions:

  • ¿Dónde está el baño? – Where is the bathroom?
  • ¿Puede ayudarme con este mapa? – Can you help me with this map?
  • ¿Hay algún restaurante cerca? – Is there a restaurant nearby?
  • ¿Cómo llego a…? – How do I get to…?
  • ¿A qué hora sale el autobús/tren? – What time does the bus/train leave?
  • ¿Dónde puedo conseguir un taxi? – Where can I get a taxi?
  • ¿Dónde puedo encontrar un cajero automático? – Where can I find an ATM?

Remember, practice and immersion will improve your language skills and enhance your overall experience in Colombia. Don’t hesitate to use these phrases, even if you feel unsure about your pronunciation or grammar. Colombians appreciate the effort and will likely respond with kindness and patience.


Enjoy your journey in Colombia as you connect with its people, culture, and heritage through the power of language!



Colombia is a captivating country that offers a myriad of experiences for travelers. Its stunning landscapes, rich cultural heritage, warm hospitality, and vibrant festivals create a unique and unforgettable journey. From exploring historical sites and indulging in delicious cuisine to engaging in outdoor adventures and immersing yourself in the local customs, Colombia has something to offer every type of traveler.


By understanding the geography and climate of Colombia, you can plan your itinerary accordingly and make the most of your time in this diverse country. Knowing the local language and embracing the cultural nuances will enhance your interactions with the welcoming Colombian people. Whether it’s hiking through lush jungles, dancing to the rhythm of salsa, or indulging in the country’s world-famous coffee, Colombia’s offerings will leave a lasting impression.


Ensure your safety by keeping informed about local guidelines and being aware of your surroundings. Take advantage of the convenient transportation options available to explore the various regions and discover hidden gems. Whether you opt for luxury hotels, budget-friendly guesthouses, or eco-lodges, Colombia offers a range of accommodation choices to suit your needs and preferences.


Immerse yourself in Colombia’s culinary delights, from savoring traditional dishes to sampling exotic fruits and enjoying the country’s famous coffee. And, of course, don’t miss out on the chance to celebrate alongside locals during festivals and cultural events, immersing yourself in the vibrant music, dance, and traditions that make Colombia truly come alive.


In closing, Colombia’s beauty, warmth, and diversity make it an extraordinary destination for travelers seeking authentic experiences. So pack your bags, immerse yourself in the wonders of this remarkable country, and embrace the adventure that awaits in Colombia.